För forskare

För forskare

För forskare

För forskare


Register-based data>>


The COPE study recruited participants from June 2020 to December 2022. All Swedish university hospitals and most smaller hospitals participated in recruitment (26 out of 42 delivery units). More than 2,800 women and 1,000 partners agreed to participate.

COPE includes a 1) biobank, 2) register-based health data, and 3) questionnaire based follow up. Only university hospitals and some smaller hospitals recruited to the biobank part. Participants could choose to join the biobank- and/or questionnaire part. A total of 2,436 birthing mothers participated in the questionnaire part, while 1,996 birthing mothers chose to contribute to the biobank part, and 1,551 birthing mothers participated in both parts. Additionally, 1,001 partners chose to participate in the questionnaire part.

1) Biosamples

Biosamples are stored at Biobank Sweden>>

Samples were collected according to a “screening group protocol” for women without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during pregnancy and according to a more extensive “COVID-19 protocol” for women with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during pregnancy. Some women in the screening group were sampled according to the COVID-19 protocol as controls.

Time points and type of biological sampling are presented in Figure 1.

The following analyses have been performed so far:

Participants Time point Sample type Analyses Laboratory and method
Mothers, children All Blood SARS-CoV-2 antibody status (IgG)

SciLifeLab with a highly specific and sensitive multiplex serological COVID‐19 assay


When working with material collected within the COPE study, all results from analyses of biological samples are made available within the COPE database.

2) Register-based data

Through linkage with the Swedish citizens personal identification number, relevant information from the following registers has been linked to the study participants:

Variables of interest Register, homepage, and reference
Pregnancy outcome The Swedish pregnancy register, Stephansson et al 2018, www.graviditetsregistret.se
Neonatal outcome The Swedish neonatal quality register, Norman et al 2019, www.snq.se
Other health outcomes

The national patient register

The Swedish prescribed drug register

The national cause of death register

The Swedish national diabetes register

The Swedish intensive care register

Positive SARS-CoV-2 tests


The Swedish register for mandatory registration of notifiable infectious disease

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status


The national vaccination register
Background characteristics Statistics Sweden 

3) Questionnaires

COPE participants received electronic questionnaires based on validated instruments as well as COPE specific questions and free text options at several time points from inclusion until four years after delivery – data collection is still ongoing.

Timepoint Questionnaires Replies from birthing mothers Replies from partner
Inclusion General Self-Efficacy scale 1827 496
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 1813 491
13-item Sense of Coherence Scale 1792 478
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 1777 473
EQ5D- Visual Analogue Scale 1777 473
Questions about COVID-19 symptoms, physical activity, subjective experiences and free text option 1772 504
1 week Questions about hospital stay, COVID-19 symptoms, hygiene measures etc. 1619
Weekly, 6 weeks Morbidity-Q at 6 weeks even COVID-19 symptoms 1170 – 1317
2 months Childbirth Experience Questionnaire 1334
Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale 1208
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 1447
Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire 1439 395
Screen Questionnaire – Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 1347 359
EQ5D- Visual Analogue Scale 1429 387
Questions about physical activity, subjective experiences, free text option 1474 419
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 411
First Time Fathers Questionnaire 401
4 and 9 months Ages and Stages Questionnaire



10 months Childbirth Experience Questionnaire 1251
Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale 1229
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 1374
Screen Questionnaire – Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 1357 346
EQ5D- Visual Analogue Scale 1356 346
Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire 1368 353
Questions about physical activity, subjective experiences, free text option 1392 382
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 378
First Time Fathers Questionnaire 365
12 months Ages and Stages Questionnaire 1337
2, 3 and 4 years Ages and Stages Questionnaire Data collection ongoing Data collection ongoing
EQ5D- Visual Analogue Scale
Experiences in Close Relationships Scale
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale
Perceived Stress Scale